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Public Administration Vs Private Administration

Public Administration Vs Private Administration | By Cherry Lyn Beldia

Most authors differentiate public administration and private administration by educational institutions (public schools vs. private schools). Although it’s a good example to provide a comprehensive analysis between the two sectors, I found it not the quintessence for a comparative analysis. Historically, in our country, public schools have a much higher quality education than private schools, and studying economics and public administration, it is not just the nature of bureaucracies, nor the scope of public administration that the case today was reversed. While some authors identified over a dozen factors that differentiates public to private administration, Denhardt only speaks of the three fundamental differences between the two. In this paper, I would elaborate Denhardt’s three points since, together with economist Boadway’s Difference between Public and Private Sector, I found these as the most undisputable and concrete comparisons.


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The most apparent difference between the two sectors is their organizing principles or goal. (Denhardt) While private administration has a definite mission, which is the pursuit of profit or stability or growth of revenues, public administration, on the other hand, has ambiguous purposes. Furthermore, the dilemma in ambiguity of purposes is exacerbated by too many unnecessary and inoperable agencies, with purposes that overlap and bloated bureaucracies. One might say that the goal of public administration is to enact public policies, but the overlapping and the main ambiguity of most of these policies, and the vagueness of the enactment of these policies make public administration’s purpose to be more ambiguous. Nevertheless, the fact that public institutions are not profit driven, should not lead us to believe that public sector employees and managers are not concerned about financial matters. As is the case with private companies, public sector units and organizations fight for funding and influence.

Another factor that makes the public sector different from the private is decision making. (Denhradt) In public administration, the decision must be and should be pluralistic. The founding fathers intentionally created a democratic republic where all key decisions are made in politicized environment. This allows for maximum participation: open debate, multiple veto points – a decision making hierarchy where consensus must be achieved at each level, ideally, an informed decision. While private administration’s decision-making is much more simple- it’s monopolistic or close to monopolistic. This type of decision-making would avoid any conflicts in interest; hence, the goal is clearly defined.

The visibility of public administrators is another notable difference between public and private sector. While a manager in a private business may work in relative obscurity, the public manager must operate in the public eye. His or her actions are constantly subjected to public scrutiny. (Denhardt) The publicness of the work of the public manager doesn’t end in merely carrying out public policy, the public manager has to respond to the demands of the public. Denhardt speaks of the “inevitable tension” between efficiency and responsiveness, the pressure to manage effectively and to be simultaneously responsive to public concerns. This pressure often leaves public organizations in a “no-win” situation, trying to serve a public that demands effective government but balks at paying for it (taxes). The public also demands accountability in government, an assurance that those who formulate, implement and administer public programs will act responsibly.

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One quality that makes public sector different from private is in the form of unit analysis. (Boadway) Apart from publicly owned-companies, most public institutions are part of a larger chain of command and control where it is harder to draw a line between the different parts of the system- and where legal frameworks provide little help in this. For instance: public agencies- like research councils or directorates of health- interact closely with ministries as well as subordinate institution and “users”. The innovation activities in these institutions are heavily influenced by decisions made above and below the chain of commands. The closest parallel to private sector will be large conglomerates or multinational companies. The complex system of organizations with various (and to some extent conflicting) tasks, is one of the reasons for the inefficiency of public administration. Although, some authors in public administration, such Woodrow Wilson in The Study of Public Administration, where he reiterated that the evolution of public administration together with its complex system and increasing number of bureaucracies is to complement the population growth, but a population with sufficient number of agencies to manage them and with high marginal productivity for each public employee, is better than a bloated bureaucracy with little or zero marginal productivity, and worse, unnecessary and redundant purpose.

Lastly, although political aspect is both apparent in public and private sector, political aspect is more important in the public than in the private sector. Policy decisions normally affect companies directly and indirectly, through laws, regulations and financial support. The public sector is at least formally controlled by elected politicians. The intimate link between this governance dimension and funding of current expenses of the activities implies a very strong link between ownership and control on the one hand and the growth strategies of the subsidiary organizations.

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Sonny Bono Knew Music and Politics

Sonny Bono Knew Music and Politics | By Robb Austin

Former pop star and California Congressman the late Sonny Bono was once asked what made for a great rock and roll song. Without hesitation he responded: simplicity – keeping it simple.

His theory was that a song should have a clear melody and simple lyrics so the public can easily recall the song when it’s played on the radio – which will increase record sales and move the song up the charts.

Bono also knew that by keeping the lyrics simple an artist can put passion and soul into the song’s vocals – a necessary ingredient for a hit.


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It’s easy to see why Congressman Bono enjoyed a successful singing and political career – he understood what so many do not – simplicity is exactly what makes for a great song – or a great political campaign.

Even a casual observer can see that most political campaigns miss the mark on Bono’s theory. They are usually muddled with ever changing messages, themes, explanations, clarifications and surrogate miscues. With so little clarity the voting public is usually struggling to figure out exactly where their local candidates stand on issues such as the economy, the war on terror, immigration, and energy.

One would think that today’s political strategists would understand what Bono had to say about music and apply it to politics. Or better still take a cue from the past races where simple themes were applied across the board. As far back as 1948 in the barnstorming whistle-stop campaign of Harry Truman – a sure loser against Thomas Dewey – voters have responded to a simple message. In Truman’s case it was “Give’m Hell Harry” and it scored one of the greatest upsets in all of Presidential politics.

In 1960 voters responded to a youthful John Kennedy and his campaign pledge to “get the country moving again” as the World War II generation grew restless in the aftermath of its great war triumph during eight complacent years of Dwight Eisenhower.

It’s a bit ironic that Richard Nixon’s winning theme of 1968 was his simple pledge to “bring us together” – but it worked as the turmoil of the Viet Nam War raged on.

In 1976 Jimmy Carter promised voters that he would “never tell a lie”and he would bring a government to Washington that was “as good as its people.” It was a fresh change for the voters and they responded – rejecting President Jerry Ford and his “WIN” button strategy (Whip Inflation Now) in favor of the simple Carter theme.

In 1980, it was Jimmy Carter who got himself bogged down in the minutia of big government while Ronald Reagan unleashed the American spirit by running a campaign on the theme that “government isn’t the solution – government is the problem”. The voters liked this message and responded to Reagan again in 1984 when his economic theories proved correct and he campaigned on the simple theme that it is “morning in America.”

I might add that Reagan’s opponent Walter Mondale also had a simple campaign message in 1984 – he pledged to raise taxes! The voters understood both messages and chose Reagan in a landslide.

In the 2008 presidential campaign Barrack Obama had a simple message – change – and it too worked.

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Historians may long argue over whether a particular presidential campaign theme was an accurate portrayal of public policy – but the simple fact is Sonny Bono was right when he said: keep things simple.

Look no further than the simple song he wrote for “Sonny and Cher”in 1965 – their biggest single and their signature song: “I Got You Babe.”

It went straight to number one.

Robb Austin is a former newspaper reporter and elected Member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and has successfully run numerous Congressional campaigns. Learn more at http://robbaustin.com
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The Internet in Politics

The Internet in Politics | By Mike Broemmel

Over the last two decades, the internet has played an influential role in our society’s daily life. With the click of a button, individuals can communicate with one another across the globe. By way of the World Wide Web, small businesses can compete with corporate giants from Manhattan to Moscow. Particularly notable, is the increase in online fundraising for political campaigns.

In 2004, former Vermont Governor Howard Dean blew fundraising records through the roof via online fundraising. Many candidates also used online organizing tools such as Meet up which provided the tools to allow pensioned activists to gather together and advocate for their candidate or political party. Four years later in the 2008 election cycle — the use of the internet for political purposes amplified even more.


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Hillary Clinton used an online video to announce her bid for the White House. President Barack Obama smashed previous fundraising records and heightened the use of online organizing tools in political campaigns with the use of sites like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. Political candidates learned the value of online fundraising by giving individuals the ability to donate quick and easy online. The number of small donors giving to campaign increased significantly. Hundreds and thousands of people giving five to ten bucks here and there goes a long way in candidates fundraising efforts.

Sites like MySpace, Facebook, Twitter and others have transformed our political process into a more personalized networking model. Does the Republican National Committee need to raise $50,000 in one day? Send em’ an email. Does the Planned Parenthood need to their members to contact their legislators on pending legislation? It’s a click away. However, the internet has down much more than allow the folks at the top of the political spectrum easier access to their members, its empowered grassroots activism from the bottom up.

In the past, it wasn’t uncommon for candidates and political organizations to be the sole speaker to their constituents or members. Now, members and individuals can communicate with one another on where they want to see their political party of organization go. Where we used to have a model with one messenger and many receivers – networking sites have empowered individuals with the ability to communicate with one another. As a result, we know have many messengers and many recipients by use of online networking sites.

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Notably, blogs have revolutionized the media and newspaper industry. Writers known as “bloggers” are able to write whatever is on their mind – unfiltered and unedited. While many people argue that blogging has opened a curtain on the political process, critics allege that blogging hurts the political process by allowing individuals to compose their view of political climates without being held to any repercussions or professional standards when misrepresenting our state of affairs.

In the realm of politics where so many things are uncertain, one thing is assured — the internet is going to play an ever increasing role in the foreseeable future. Whether they like it or not, candidates and organizations must embrace it… or perish.

Mike Broemmel is a published author and frequent lecturer. “The Shadow Cast” and “The Miller Moth” are two of the books currently on the market internationally. Mike Broemmel is the owner of Broemmel Media, a comprehensive media relations company serving clients around the world. Broemmel Media is located online at http://broemmelmedia.com This summer, Broemmel will start hosting the Internet radio current events and political affairs program “Side Lines.” He can be reached at info@broemmelmedia.com.
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Schengen Agreement

Schengen Agreement | By Ramya Sadasivam

Since 1950s, the European Union had been dreaming of free movement of people without a passport, across the countries which form the European Union. The Schengen agreement of 1985 opened all internal national borders all members of the Schengen agreement including roadways, airways and seaways. Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands, after having made a lot of analysis ultimately decided to instigate a consolidated system on June 14, 1985 by endorsing an agreement in Schengen and hence the name Schengen agreement.

After the continued pressure from several member states Strategic committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum, was established successfully. In 1990, the Schengen agreement was further clarrified, with a Convention that explained how it actually works. Initially, the Schengen agreement did not fall within the framework of the European Community with the Treaty of Amsterdam became part of the European Law in 1991 and was assigned legal force on May 1, 1999 at the end. Continued complaints raised from the Eurpoean Parliament regarding the justice and home affairs.


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Spain and Portugal joined the Schengen zone. Convention is all about the abolishment of border controls of the Schengen agreement are included police assistance, statutory aid and the intensification of the external borders of Schengen sector. It aimed at controlling all illegal activities which included drug peddling, illegal immigration and the other factors which had signs of causing any internal hindrances within the zone of Schengen.

Since then other countries have signed Convention were Austria and Italy in 1997, Greece in 2000, followed by Finland, Denmark, and Sweden in 2001. In 2007, the Schengen zone was further expanded when the countries Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the scheme. In 2008, Switzerland joined the team.

The Schengen agreement allowed non members of EU to join and Iceland, Norway, the non EU members have by new signed the agreement. Several EU countries did not take part in the Schengen agreement. UK and Ireland did not enter this scheme in the fear of encouraging terrorism. EEA encompasses of an assembly of governing authorities- ministers and commissioners (who meet twice a year), a council of high-level representatives of the Commission and EEA member states, a parliament inclusive of all the parliaments of EFTA, a council of representatives of worker and employer group.

The free movement system is confined to the internal boundaries of the members only. If someone from Schengen zone is about to cross the external boundary of a Schengen country, he/she will be thoroughly checked. For a member of a non-Schengen country to enter a Schengen country requires a visa which collectively applies for all the countries that belong to the Schengen zone until the visa expires.

Though it is an established fact that citizen of the Schengen zone can cross inra-Schengen frontier with no constraint, he/she is advised to carry all the documentation to support his birth and citizenship such as passport, national ID card, invitation letter, proof of lodging or any thing of this kind. Travellers from non members of Schengen are advised to carry their passport and residence permit.

The validity of the visa is for about three months and it has to be renewed after the three month’s period even in case if the individual is on a trip for more than three months in any of the Schengen countries. A Schengen visa is quite difficult to be acquired as an applicant is expected to meet the requirements to enter a Schengen country. In order to regulate a hindrance free system, the extension of visa is made very difficult. So visa holders are advised to plan their trip far in advance.

The Schengen agreement has designed an IT system which is the Schengen Information system (SIS). Its purpose is to keep a check on the individuals who intend to buy a visa, to keep a track on the movement of the individual and make the record absolutely computerized. This computerization is required to avoid any mishap, confusion, illegal drug trafficking and to assure internal security. This is used in the frontier to check the entry and exit of any individual. The information is provided to tolice and customs so officials avoid unnecessary mistakes.

This system also helps the Schengen system to act only on individuals, vehicle, so that any object or individual went missing can be found where he or it is actually lost. It just requires the entry of the person’s or the object’s details whichever is lost. SIS has a separate list called the “blacklist” to highlight the spotted people who are statutorily denied to gain access to the other countries. Criminals and expelled individuals cannot go out of the country without clearing the blacklist.

The intention of the Schengen agreement is to encourage tourism and business. It saves a lot of money, as on the issuance of the visa, Hsb holder is free to move around all the countries of the Schengen zone.

Another objective of the Schengen Agreement was to reduce illegal activities. The S.A facilitates hot pursuit- police action cross the internal borders in search of criminals who are suspected to have jumped from one country to the other, collective sharing of SIS information to improve database sharing among the police and the consulates of Schengen members, to ease the work of identifying and finding a criminal. Once when any Schengen citizen or non-Schengen citizen is found to have opted to take a trip through the Schengen zone, infrastructural arrangements will be made at Switzerland and Europeann airports to make the passenger route easy.

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There are few drawbacks of the Schengen agreement which requires special attention and rectification to refine the agreement in further. A short stay visa costs around 60 euros which is four to five times more expensive than the normal visa from one country to the neighbour country was preciously Schengen visa. In addition, it is believed that the Schengen agreement could increase terrorism if the SIS collapses by any chance. The main reason why U.K. and Ireland refused to sign the agreement is Schengen agreement was introduced with the objective of making the criminal chase easier to cops, on the other hand it is obserbed to be difficult as they have to maintain a huge list of criminals who belong to the other countries also.

Ramya Sadasivam

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Politics For Beginners

Politics For Beginners | By David John Martin

I am amazed by some of the people whom I encounter every day who do not know anything about politics. Everyone should know how their government works so I am writing down my old college notes as a beginner’s guide. As it’s the credit crunch some of you will feel too busy and confused by the political situation and the criticism of the government on financial and borrowing matters. This is why everyone should take a little time to understand government rolls and why they affect everything from your home insurance to your grocery bill.

The United Kingdom is run with a democratic government. The House of Commons and The House of Lords hold the government in check although the House of Commons is the more powerful of the two houses.


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We live under ‘Prime Ministerial’ rule – this means the rule of one person.
The powers that the P.M has depends on five key factors.

– The personality of the P.M
– Majority that the P.M has in the House of Commons
– The success of the P.M’s policies
– The unity of the P.M’s party
– The effectiveness of the Opposition party

Unlike in America where there is a deputy president, in the UK there is constitutionally no such role as a deputy Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister is the leader of the House of Commons. He appoints and dismisses members of the government. He is also the Chairman of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister has his own offices and advisors and is the most important representative of the Government. The P.M holds wide powers of patronage and also chooses the date of the general election.

Now for a bit of economics. There is no excuse not to pay attention to this part if news coverage of the credit crunch has left you baffled. Economics basically means the study of using scarce resources as efficiently as possible so that society’s unlimited demands for goods and services can be met.

The term that we so often hear in the news ‘the public sector’ refers to the sector run by the state like Government departments, Local Government and Nationalised Industries. The main role of the public sector is to provide efficient and adequate services.

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The term ‘the Private Sector’ refers to organisations that are privately owned such as companies, clubs, partnerships etc. The main role of the private sector is to maximise profits.

Recession is a state of affairs that indicate a down turn in the business cycle. Output and investment has dropped, demand has dropped and unemployment has risen. This can be caused by a number of factors i.e. external factors such as a world oil crisis.

Reflation is a policy to combat recession. The policy may include reducing interest rates, reducing taxes, increasing public spending and devaluing the currency.

Find out more information on the new site at http://www.confused.com – money news, hints and tips on products including home insurance, mortgages, and credit cards.
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Independence Day

In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, picnics, concerts, baseball games, political speeches and ceremonies, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the national day of the United States.


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Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations often take place outdoors. Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions (like the postal service and federal courts) are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation’s heritage, laws, history, society, and people.

Families often celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue and take advantage of the day off and, in some years, long weekend to gather with relatives. Decorations are generally colored red, white, and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades often are in the morning, while fireworks displays occur in the evening at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares.

Independence Day fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem “The Star-Spangled Banner”, “God Bless America”, “America the Beautiful”, “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”, “This Land Is Your Land”, “Stars and Stripes Forever”, and, regionally, “Yankee Doodle” in northeastern states and “Dixie” in southern states. Some of the lyrics recall images of the Revolutionary War or the War of 1812.

Firework shows are held in many states, and many fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Safety concerns have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed. Illicit traffic transfers many fireworks from less restrictive states.

A salute of one gun for each state in the United States, called a “salute to the union,” is fired on Independence Day at noon by any capable military base.

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Major displays are held in New York on the East River, in Chicago on Lake Michigan, in San Diego over Mission Bay, in Boston on the Charles River, in St. Louis on the Mississippi River, and on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. During the annual Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario, host one of the world’s largest fireworks displays, over the Detroit River, to celebrate both American Independence Day and Canada Day.

While the official observance always falls on July 4th, participation levels may vary according to which day of the week the 4th falls on. If the holiday falls in the middle of the week, some fireworks displays and celebrations may take place during the weekend for convenience, again, varying by region.

Source: wikipedia

Obama and the Wizard of Oz

Obama and the Wizard of Oz | By Gary Wonning

I heard a good analogy on a Sunday morning talk show concerning Obama and the current financial situation. I think it best describes what he is trying to do better than anything else I have heard.

The hosts were comparing Obama and our present administration with the classic 1939 movie, “The Wizard of Oz.”


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In their analogy, as in the movie, Dorothy,as well as Obama’s mother, was from Kansas and as such displayed good moral values. Dorothy then traveled to Oz, a land of fantasy and illusion. While there, Dorothy experienced a tornado, in the analogy, the tornado was referred to as the large deficit that Obama is creating, it’s what is hiding behind the curtain that Obama doesn’t want to talk about. The wicked, evil, witch was referred to as Nancy Pelosi, she was the one who was trying to bring hardship to everyone.

In the meantime,the state run media is trying to convince us the economy is improving when it isn’t. Do you think it can do that?

The state run media spent eight years trying to convinced everyone we were having a bad economy when it was actually good, so now they are trying to convince us the economy is good when it is actually in the tank. They can and will do that. Most people are too busy with their daily lives to stay informed, they only catch a blurb on the evening news and that becomes the basis of their information. The media and Obama say in one breath the economy is improving and in the next breath announce that 14 GM plants are closing as well many car dealerships, in the process laying off thousands of people.

Do you think anything public officials can be believed?

FDR said that social security would never be taxed, now not only is Social Security being taxed, they are talking of taxing employer paid health care benefits. In spite of the fact that social security was never designed to pay anything out, the minimum age to start drawing benefits was 65, and the life span at that time was 64, many still think of FDR as a great president.

Our fall to socialism probably started with his “New Deal”, accelerated with the great society of Lyndon Johnson and jumped into high gear under George Bush and accelerated into supersonic speed under the regime of Obama.

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Although we have been headed for a financial crisis for years, I am still skeptical about how the financial collapse of Sept 08 came about, it happened just 5 weeks before an election, I find it hard to believe that it wasn’t contrived by the democrats to create a bit of a financial crisis and it got out of hand. There are no accidents in life, everything happens for a reason.

In the end, Dorothy found that only Dorothy could save Dorothy, no one else could do it.

So it is in real life, neither Obama nor the government can save us. Americans must learn to save themselves. It really doesn’t work as Dorothy did, we can’t just click our heels three times and be saved. The only method that will work is to go back to sound economic and spiritual principles, realize nothing happens overnight, work hard and smart, to build for the future.

Gary has traveled to many parts of the world, see more articles and photos at: http://www.travelnsnap.com
Gary has developed a line of novelty gifts featuring some of his photos taken around the world. http://www.tshirtsbumperstickers.com
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Goodbye, General Motors

Goodbye, General Motors | By Jerome Grossman

For decades I was loyal consumer of General Motors products. It all began when I graduated from high school and was accepted by Harvard College. My father, who had to leave school after the fifth grade to help support his family, was so proud that he insisted on buying me a tiny Pontiac, “A Harvard man should have a car.” I was 16 years old.

The Pontiac had an unusual history. It had been totaled in a crash and then a friend of my father rebuilt it from scratch, painted it startling bright silver with red wheels. The tiny convertible with the exposed rumble seat made me a very popular Harvard freshman.


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It also made me a loyal “Buy American” consumer supporting U.S. businesses and the workers of Detroit by purchasing GM products year after year. However, years later, my wife returned from her bridge game with a message, “My friends love the Lexis; why don’t we try it.”

My answer was a resounding negative: “We must support the American worker and buy American.” But the bridge friends had an answer: “Does your husband know that many American cars are assembled in Mexico, Canada, South Korea and China, where the work is done for two dollars an hour instead of 20?” So I bought my first Lexis in 2001. I still have that automobile and it is a dream, a loyal and healthy horse that seems to go on forever.

Now GM is in bankruptcy, rescued temporarily by the U.S. government. My feelings of guilt for deserting were assuaged when I learned that low wage countries will manufacture at least 25% of GM output under the rescue plan.


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While the U.S. government will be the majority stockholder and will supervise the restructuring plan, President Barack Obama says that he does not want to run the company and that it should be operated on classic business principles.

I believe President Obama but some Republicans and conservatives warn of political interference in operations. They may be right. Already Representative Barney Frank, my own Democratic congressman, has intervened with GM management to extend the life of a parts distribution center in his district that was scheduled to be closed. The political motivation is bipartisan. Republicans are just as likely to protect jobs in their districts: Republican Representative Steve La Tourette of Ohio wants congressional review of company and government decisions on the automakers. In the U.S. Senate, Carl Levin of Michigan said he will do everything he can keep the GM plants there open, as will senators across the country.. Their political existence demands it.

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Some think that the reduced GM will not survive for long, that the Administration is keeping it alive for political reasons and to keep the United Auto Workers functioning in election years 2010 and 2012. But the world has changed; too many unrectifiable mistakes have been made. General Motors, once the preeminent American company, may become as much of a relic as my silver Pontiac convertible with the startling red wheels.

Jerome Grossman’s Website
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