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A Symbol of Life and Freedom

The American Bald Eagle – A Symbol of Life and Freedom
| By Lynda Lacroix

The United States congress adopted the American Bald Eagle in 1782 as the national emblem. Native Americans considered these birds to be holy and their feathers sacred adorning themselves with feathers to show their rank in the tribe or their prowess in battle. Not everyone thought these birds to be so honorable. According to myths and stories, they were hunted and slaughtered without regard, reducing their number from the thousands to only a few hundred nesting pairs. Although Congress enacted the Bald Eagle Protection Act to protect the symbol of our nation and to prevent these beautiful birds from becoming extinct, other battles were still to be fought in the war of survival before this magnificent bird started the uphill climb to recovery.


Americans grow up with a mental picture of the American Bald Eagle because it is used as a symbol on some currency, flags, and memorials as well as being a popular model for paintings to adorn our walls. It is easily recognized with a dark body and white feathers on both the head and tail. The female eagles are larger than the males, weighing up to fourteen pounds, while the males generally weigh seven to ten pounds. Their lifespan can be more than thirty years in the wild. Mating for life, they often nest within a hundred miles of the nest where they were reared; laying a clutch of two or three eggs yearly in a nest they expand year after year, the nest sometimes reaching ten feet in diameter. Both parents participate in the incubation of the eggs, a process which will take between thirty-four and thirty-six days (hatching usually a day or two apart). A young eagle or fledgling will leave the nest between seventy and ninety-eight days of age. Bald Eagles will breed beginning in February through July away from human disturbances in open areas. Eagles will migrate from Northern area further south for the winter, gathering along waterways with an abundant food supply.

Habitats for the bald eagles include waterways or estuaries, large lakes, seacoast area, reservoirs, and major rivers, but ample food source is not the only requirement for the large birds. They must also have perching and nesting areas to accommodate this species.

Much of the bald eagles original habitat has been lost since the Europeans arrived in North America due to deforestation for towns, farms, and for lumber to support the growth. This deforestation has destroyed perching and nesting sites, forcing the raptors to seek other roost such as the top of a high voltage electric pole.

The bald eagle was adopted by the U.S. Congress as the national emblem in 1782. At that time, the number of eagles was estimated as high as seventy-five thousand. By 1940, the number had reduced so drastically that Congress enacted the Bald Eagle Protection Act. This act made it illegal to harass, kill, or possess the birds or any bird or any bird parts without a permit. Although this act offered a promise for the future of the eagle, the struggle for survival was far from over. Farmers and ranchers viewed the eagle as a threat to their livestock but their primary prey is fish although they will eat waterfowl, small mammals or rodents, and carrion.

The chemical era for agriculture and pesticides after World War II ushered in new problems for the troubled population of eagles while fighting the war on insects. DDT and other pesticides applied to lawns and crops washed into the nations’ water sources and contaminated water plants, fish, and small creatures, supplying a deadly dose to the eagles as they ate the fish where the chemicals concentrated in their tissues. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, DDT was originally used to control mosquitoes along coastal and wetland areas. DDT accumulated in the birds’ fat as the DDT broke down in the birds’ body and slowed the release of calcium into the eggshells produced by the females. These birds in turn laid eggs with thin shells that would be crushed by the parents incubating them.

The Secretary of the Interior in 1967 under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 listed bald eagles south of the fortieth parallel as endangered. The population numbers had dropped to fewer than 500 pairs in the lower forty-eight states mainly due to habitat destruction, hunting, and the use of pesticides like DDT. Scientists determined the link between DDT and the lower number of eagles and the United States government banned its’ use in 1972. Another battle had been won, but the war was still not over.

Although the bald eagle received protection first under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, it wasn’t until after the Endangered Species Act passes in 1973, that conservation measures to protect the eagle were implemented. The Endangered Species Act allowed distinct populations of animal species to be listed and new categories of threatened species to be added. Endangered species are defined by the Act as any species in danger of extinction throughout a significant portion or all of its’ range. A captive-breeding program to produce birds for release into the wild was started by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In addition to the captive breeding program, the National Wildlife Refuges and local raptor rehabilitation centers work to improve habitats or by rehabilitating injured eagles so they may be released back into the wild. Most of these organizations work through volunteers and are funded by donation, providing medical care for the birds and public education through presentations and exhibitions. These measures, coupled with law enforcement and protection of the nesting sites during breeding, helped the recovery of the species, but even with these measures there were still challenges ahead for the Bald Eagle.


Another cause of mortality has been lead poisoning with more than two hundred and twenty five cases diagnosed in the last 15 years. The National Wildlife Federation succeeded in the early 1980s in getting the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to ban the use of lead shot nationwide in hunting waterfowl, Waterfowl that had eaten or been wounded by lead shot would cause lead poisoning in eagles, which could weaken or even kill adult eagles. Since the ban, waterfowl hunters use shells loaded with steel shot instead of lead. Although the change to steel shot has helped the problem of lead poisoning, it has not cured it since upland hunters can still use lead shot, while other reports show some birds have been poisoned from lead fishing sinkers. In order to reduce the risk, people should not leave solid debris such as lead sinkers in rivers and lakes where there is a chance they could be ingested by an eagle.

Another battle still being fought concerns the toxic effects of mercury affecting eagles with a variety or neurological problems that can alter motor skills and reduce the rate of eggs hatching. The source of the mercury has been identified entering waterways as air emissions from solid waste incineration sites as well as other sources. The impact on the bald eagle population in the Southeastern Region is under investigation.

In the first half of this century illegal shooting still posed a threat to eagles, this impact has been reduced through public education and law enforcement. Some deaths still occur on power poles and lines that have not been redesigned to protect raptors, although the poles are usually configured to reduce the occurrence of electrocutions.

Humans and their disturbances are still a long-term threat to the Bald Eagle. Recreational activity in nesting sites can impact the reproduction processes of these birds. Eagles prefer to breed away from human disturbance in the open and adult birds can be flushed from the nests during incubation and brooding periods. This can expose the eggs or young to adverse conditions. In order to reduce some of the problems caused by these disturbances, land management practices have included zones of protection restricting public access during crucial times. If an individual finds themselves in an eagle habitat, he or she should avoid disturbing the eagles by staying at least three hundred feet away and by keeping an obstruction between them.

Although each of these problems individually is no longer a serious threat to the existence of the Bald Eagle, collectively, they can cause serious problems if not monitored. On August 11, 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species, ruled that the American Bald Eagle would be removed from the endangered list but would remain listed as threatened even though the eagle has made a spectacular comeback to nearly 5,800 pairs. In a CBS new report on June 29, 2000 Cindy Hoffman stated that lawyers for the government were trying to determine if the birds’ habitat would be protected by federal law if it is taken off the endangered species list. Due to all of these efforts, generations to come will be able to look up and see our national symbol flying overhead instead of just seeing in on our currency, stamps or flag poles.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will work with state agencies to monitor the status of the bald eagle for five years, a requirement of the Endangered Species Act. They are the principal federal agency responsible for protecting, conserving, and enhancing wildlife, fish, and their habitats while managing over 150 million acres, 550 units in the National Wildlife Refuge System, operating sixty-six national fish hatcheries and 37 wetland management districts. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers the Endangered Species Act, enforces Federal wildlife laws, conserves and restores wildlife habitats, manages migratory bird populations, and helps foreign countries with their conservation practices, while overseeing the Federal Aid programs to state fish and wildlife agencies. In addition to all of these duties, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established the National Eagle Repository in early 1970 to provide feathers from the Golden and Bald Eagles for Native American ceremonial purposes located at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in Denver, Colorado. The repository is a collection point for dead eagles. The Bald Eagle Protection Act prohibits the taking, transportation, barter, trade, import or export, sale of any part of and the possession of eagles. This Act makes it illegal to possess and eagle or body part from an eagle. Possession of an eagle body part, even a feather, without a permit, is a felony and can carry a fine up to $10,000 and/or imprisonment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will issue a permit to a Native American to receive and possess eagle feathers from the Repository for use in religious ceremonies, but there is a large demand with thousands on a waiting list. The Repository receives around nine hundred eagles per year and it could take up to two and a half years for an order to be filled for even a single feather.

As of January 2009, The American Bald Eagle is still listed as a threatened species for certain populations in the Sonoran Desert (Region 2) but is listed as Taxon-recovered for the lower 48 states. Diligent observation is still required to maintain this recovery but proper steps were taken to provide the necessary protection for these magnificent birds.

The American people have risen to the occasion to protect the symbol of our nation and because of this dedication; the American Bald Eagle has made a spectacular recovery from near extinction. The story of the fight to save this magnificent bird shows the same courage and honor as we associate with the bird itself. It has been an uphill battle, but it is one the American people rose to meet head on. Maybe one day on the long drive to school, in the early morning hours, I can look up at one of those beautiful birds soaring high above the trees and feel pride in knowing it is there because we cared enough not to give up.

Lynda M Lacroix is an accomplished writer with 40 years experience working with nature and species that inhabit this planet. She has dedicated her life to methods of co-existing on this planet; reducing our carbon footprint; preservation of species; and now wants to educate those interested in living a homestead life. A homestead life uses the circle of life merged with new technologies bringing back basic values that have been forgotten. Click here for more:

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Handling Hazardous Chemical Spills

Handling Hazardous Chemical Spills

You probably know the risks of spills very well if you work in an area that deals with any kind of hazardous material. Most companies make spills a very large part of their safety training. Depending on the chemicals you work with, the possible damages and risks may be anything from corrosive acids to toxic oils. All liquids have their own unique properties, and so different chemicals may require totally different solutions to clean up the spills.

If you work with hazardous chemicals, such as acids, then you know that attempting to clean acid with a paper towel is quite useless, as is using a mop or other means which can do a good job of cleaning smaller spills. The chemicals that you work with would eat through a flimsy paper towel or a mop head’s cotton fibers in a matter of minutes, or even seconds if it’s a strong acid. Assuming you could make a mop work temporarily, you’d be buying new mop heads every time you had to clean up a spill. This is, obviously, very counterproductive.


Also, you’ll want to protect yourself, your surroundings and your colleagues and customers from the effects of the spilled chemical. How best do you accomplish this?

The solution to your problem is an easy one. A hazardous materials spill kit contains everything you need to handle the nastiest of hazardous chemicals. The kits that you’ll select for handling a hazmat spill should include quite a few different items. You’ll need an absorbent that will absorb and neutralize the chemical. In kits, these come in the form of loose materials, socks, mats, and pillows. Each can be used for a variety of things. Mats and pillows are great for helping to control leaks that can’t be avoided, or simply can’t be repaired right away. Loose absorbent could be used to contain and to clean a large spill. To do this you’d surround the spill with the absorbent, and then gently push the absorbent in to absorb the chemical. The socks could be used for either application.

Your kit should also contain safety equipment. At the very least, you’re going to need disposable gloves to protect hands, disposable shoe covers to protect shoes from effects of chemicals or causing slips from residue, goggles to protect your eyes, and containers for the safe and legal disposal of the chemicals. It would be a good idea to get a kit which also contains hazmat suits and respirators to protect the full body during spills of particularly aggressive fluids.

Your kit should also contain documentation detailing the use of the products included for anyone who may not know. Take time to familiarize both yourself and any colleagues who may be near the area during a spill with this documentation. Understanding how to effectively and efficiently use the items in the kit and handle a spill can help to control hazards associated with working with chemicals, and may even save a life. As with any hazardous materials, you’ll also find MSDS documentation for any hazardous materials in the are. This sheet will tell you what they are, what they can do, and how to treat if there is any contact with skin, eyes or if it’s inhaled.

Having these kits and knowing how to use them is very important, At the very least, it could save you money. At the very best, it may even save the life of yourself or someone you work with.

Disguised Perils

The chemicals in your facility pose many hidden risks. Many liquids look completely harmless, just like they might be water. For this reason it is important that all chemicals are clearly labeled and there is documentation available as to what they are capable of. It is also highly imporant that you can clean up spills and leaks of any hazardous chemicals in your facility quickly and efficiently.

Acids and bases are very corrosive chemicals which can cause a very serious burn if they come in contact with flesh. The burns can range from minor irritation (like a rash) to a very serious third degree burn, or worse. Some corrosives can eat through bone.

Many hazardous chemical spill kits are equipped with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as goggles, clothing covers, respirators, goves, and shoe covers for this reason. These measures will help to shield the person working with chemicals from the corrosive properties of the chemicals.

There are many times when you may not realize exactly what liquid you’re working with. Many chemicals are colorless and odorless, and you won’t be able to tell the difference between them and water unless you can see a chemical reaction occurring, such as the bubbling of acid as it reacts with a solid. If you are unable to determine the source of the spilled liquid, for any reason, treat it as a chemical spill. Never assume that any liquid is simply water, especially in a facility that stores chemicals. Just because the liquid is colorless and odorless doesn’t mean that it’s not an acid or a base – or possibly worse – a highly flammable chemical.


Chemical Safety Training
If you own or operate a facility which deals in any type of hazardous chemicals, any training of new employees should include a rigorous chemical safety training segment.

Your employees need to know and understand the chemicals they’ll be working with. Are they using acids or bases? If so, what acids? How strong are they? What are the hazards and how serious can they harm someone? If it’s spilled, what are the proper precautions to take before cleaning it, and what are the procedures for cleaning it?

If they’ll be working in a specific department, make sure your safety training shows them exactly where any spill kits and safety materials will be. Chemical safety should include a kit capable of properly handling and neutralizing any chemicals in the area, proper Personal Protective Equipment, a hand washing sink, an eye wash station and possibly a disinfecting shower. First aid kits should always be available in the workplace.

Make sure your employees know where they can find PPE equipment and that you stock equipment that will fit them. People, unfortunately, are not “one size fits all”. You need to make sure that you have proper equipment available for everyone you employ. If you work in a specialized industry, you may be able to make it a condition of employment that they own their own, especially if it’s essentially a uniform item. It doesn’t matter how you ensure they have and know how to use it, simply that you do.

Your most valuable resource is not the chemicals, or the product, or the building you work in. Your most valuable resource will always be the people who make your product possible. Make sure you keep them safe, trained, and able to handle all of the possibilities their jobs may throw their way. You could employ a group of rocket scientists, but in the event of an accident they may still all be dead if they have no idea where safety equipment is or how it operates. carries a large selection of spill kits and industrial safety supplies.

We also carry a full supply of spill containment products.

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9th Grade Science Fair Projects

9th Grade Science Fair Projects Made Fun and Easy | By Dee Schrock

Unfairly or not, 9th grade science fair projects compete against those made by high school students, which can be intimidating for even the most accomplished 9th grade science whiz. Fortunately, the playing field can be leveled with the right science project that can compete head-on with others. But first, it is necessary to choose the type of science fair project you will take on. This makes the process of choosing the final science project so much easier since you have narrowed your choices down to a manageable level.



This is the most common type used in 9th grade science fair projects, which seek to answer a relatively straightforward question through the scientific method. Thus, you will observe and collect data, measure and organize it, construct a hypothesis and prediction, experiment with the variables, analyze the resulting data, make a model and finally, communicate the results. Of course, your venue for communication is the science fair. Fun examples of this type are the comparison of wood pellets for barbecues, determination of the best type of pesticide against crickets, and the evaluation of various types of water purification.


You will either confirm or invalidate the results of a previous experiment conducted by another scientist. In many instances, you do not have to replicate the processes previously employed as you can indeed improve upon them. Usually, demonstration type 9th grade science fair experiments can be culled from Internet resources, which have a rich abundance of full published studies made by other 9th graders. Examples include the improvement of jatropha oil properties and the explanation of the oscillating clock chemical reaction.


As the name suggests, you collect relevant information about the chosen topic and then presenting your findings. Keep in mind that a good presentation for 9th grade science fair projects can make or break your science fair project so make it as best as you possibly can. To make it fun, you can use innovative presentation methods like a mini-play or a mini-demonstration. Or you can use more colorful materials to attract the attention of the observers and judges.


If you want to stand out from among many 9th grade science fair projects, the best choice would be to go for the model type of project. You have to build a scale model to describe in visual and audio terms your chosen concept or principle. Examples include making a scale model of the tectonic plates to simulate earthquakes, constructing a baking soda volcano that spews vinegar, and building a solar toy car to explain its large-scale counterparts. Or to make it even more fun, you can invent something new! Don’t worry if it appears silly to others because the silliest of inventions often start a revolution. Think of the way Henry Ford revolutionized car manufacture.


If you are an avid collector of things, you can show them off but with an award-winning twist. For example, instead of showing just your bug specimen collection, explain how each one differs according to the season of the year it was collected, how its environment may have affected its growth and many other things.

Once you have selected from among these types, your 9th grade science fair projects will become more inspired, more focused and more award-winning. And isn’t that where the fun really is?

For more 9th grade science fair projects and step-by-step instructions, visit Be sure to check out the site for tons of simple science projects elementary science experiments, middle school, and high school science.
Copyright 2009. Feel free to reprint this article on your site as long as the article is not modified in any way and the resource information (about the author) is listed as above.Article Source:

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Understand Sir Isaac Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

Helping Kids Understand Sir Isaac Newton’s Three Laws of Motion | By Lorie Moffat

Your son or daughter has science questions about Sir Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion. How can you begin to guide your child’s understanding of these concepts? Without thinking about them, we use Sir Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion every day. Newton’s first law explains why it is harder to stop a moving car than a roller skate. Newton’s second law algebraically relates the force on an object, its mass, and its acceleration. Newton’s third law concerns how forces act upon objects. By relating every day experiences, you can help your child understand Sir Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion.


1. Newton’s first law of motion is also known as the law of inertia. The term, inertia, derives from the Greek, inert, or not moving. Newton’s first law states that any object will remain stationary or will continue to move in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external, unbalanced force. A force is a push or pull on an object. Inertia is a measure of the mass of an object. An automobile has more inertia than a roller skate. While you are traveling in a moving car, you are moving in the same direction and with the same speed as the car.

If the car suddenly comes to a stop, you will still be moving in the original direction, through the windshield if you do not use a seatbelt or airbag. The seatbelt keeps you in one position relative to the car’s motion, keeping your body against the seat. Inertia also explains why you lean towards the opposite direction as the car moves around a steep curve. If the car turns right, you lean towards the left; if the car turns left, you lean towards the right. Again, your body continues to move in a straight line during the turn, as it did before the turn.

2. Any time you want to change the speed or direction of an object, you need to use the appropriate force. Newton’s second law of motion relates the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration. In science, acceleration is the change in speed or direction of a moving object. Force on an object is equal to its mass multiplied by its acceleration. The strength of the force on an object depends upon the object’s mass, or how much material it contains, and how fast its speed is changing, or its acceleration.

An automobile hitting a wall at the same speed as a roller skate would have more force, since the car has more mass. A unit of measurement for force is the Newton, abbreviated N, named after Sir Isaac Newton. One Newton, or one N, is the force needed to move a mass of one kilogram one meter per second in a second. Or algebraically, 1 N = 1 kg * m/ s2. A Newton of force is a small amount. A person weighing 110 pounds exerts a force of 50 Newtons on Earth.

3. Newton’s third law of motion is more commonly called action reaction. For every action in one direction, there is an equal and opposite reaction in the opposite direction; even if the object does not move. Forces always act in pairs, even if the object remains still. While sitting in a chair, you provide a force on the chair acting down towards the floor. At the same time, the chair provides an equal and opposite upward force on you. If this were not the case, you would be sitting upon the floor instead. While you walk, for each step that you take your foot pushes against the floor. As you push, or provide a force, against the floor, the floor also pushes against your foot, propelling you forward. If you try to walk across sheer ice, you must adjust your steps, since the ice does not provide the same force as the floor.


By using every day examples, you can help your children understand Sir Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion. The law of inertia, or Newton’s first law of motion, describes how a stationary object begins to move or how the motion of an object changes. Newton’s second law of motion algebraically relates an object’s mass and acceleration to the amount of force involved to cause motion. Finally, Newton’s third law of motion involves the fact that forces on an object always act in opposing pairs, whether or not the forces cause motion.

Lorie Moffat invites you to watch a FREE Demonstration of How My Unique 1 on 1 Online Classroom With Full Voice Boosts Your Child’s Math and Science Grades Today. Go to
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National Geographic Interactive

National Geographic Interactive

The world and all that is in it! For more than 120 years, National Geographic magazine has chronicled exploration, adventure, and changes that affect life on Earth through award-winning photography and journalism. National Geographic Interactive adapts the analog magazine to be more easily and logically experienced in a digital form. We hope to “express” the essence of National Geographic while exploring the frontiers being opened by a new class of electronic reading devices. The National Geographic Society was founded in 1888, and continues to be fueled by a burning desire to visit new places and then bring them back to like-minded readers. National Geographic Interactive is simply a new way to accomplish a century-long passion.

Be inspired to care about the planet—become a member of the National Geographic Society today.

Digital Subscription / 12 Issues

$16.50 US

National Geographic Interactive – Subscription

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Want to learn more about the skeletal system? Take a look at: Sternum Anatomy

The chest is one of the most important regions in your body – and for good reason too. In this chest region, organs essential to survival, such as the lungs, heart, and arteries, are located. In order to protect one of the most vital regions in the body, the body has developed an impressive array of defenses. At the top of the list of the bodies defenses are the bones.

Many people know what the skeletal system bones look like. However few know their structure and composition. The bones are created from a special type of tissue, known as dense connective tissue. The bones are formed from calcium phosphate and a type of dense connective tissue. Every bone in the body has a slightly different shape and size, which is controlled by the genetic code. The bones play essential roles in movement, support, strength, protection, and shape.


Although the bones play essential roles in protection, another vital function of the bones are creation of white and red blood cells. A soft region, known as the bone marrow, is located at the center of many skeletal bones. Red blood cells and white blood cells are produced in this region. These  red blood cells are essential for survival of the body, this is because these cells carry oxygen to other cells. White blood cells are part of the immune system and play important roles in defending against bacteria.

In the chest, there are 25 bones. 24 of these bones are known as the rib, and the body contains 2 sets of 12 ribs on each side of the chest. The sternum is the 25th bone of the chest that accompanies the twenty four rib bones. These chest bones are essential in the protection of the lungs and heart.   The ribs are curved skeletal bones that form a structure known as the rib cage around the lungs and heart. Along with protecting the heart and lungs, the ribs allow breathing by expanding and compressing. The other bone of the chest, the sternum, is found in the center of the chest. It’s role is protection of the heart primarily.


Without these chest bones, human existence would be greatly compromised. Without these bones, vital organs such as the heart and lungs could be compromised. Therefore, in order to protect itself, the body has devised these bones to defend the organs. The thorax bones are responsible for 25 out of 206 bones in the human body skeleton.

To learn more about sternum anatomy, head on over to Learn Bones is the premier resource on the bones of the human skeleton. There you will find detailed descriptions, diagrams, and images.

Science Fair Projects Made Fun and Easy

Middle School Science Fair Projects Made Fun and Easy | By Dee Schrock

Middle school science fair projects are a transition phase for students, neither too elementary nor too high school level. However, just because it is your transition stage does not mean that you have to be ambivalent about your middle school science experiments, far from it. Instead, you should show off your accumulated knowledge and passionate interest in science by adopting any of the following projects. Just remember that before you choose one, you should have assessed in which field of science you are most interested in. This way, you will be more motivated to do your research, conceptualize your project and then accomplish your vision.

Renewable Energy


One of the hottest topics for middle school science fair projects today is renewable energy in the form of solar power and wind turbines. You can tap into this interest by constructing a model of how solar panels and/or wind turbines work to provide energy and electricity to home and industries. This is probably one of the easiest and yet most eye-catching middle school science fair projects for many reasons. For one thing, you can purchase ready-made, easy-to-assemble and easy-on-the-pocket kits for solar energy and wind power science projects. For another thing, you can make it as eye-catching as possible with the addition of houses and buildings complete with lights.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car

You may also purchase a ready-made kit for the hydrogen fuel cell car, which provides for 30 distinct experiments. You will be able to demonstrate the workings and benefits of the energy-efficient car, which is one of the more notable inventions technologies of the century. Among the experiments contained in the kit are the uses of solar power for vehicle power, the utilization of fuel cell to separate the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water, and demonstration of electrolysis. Well, of course, you can always make your own experiments just so your middle school science fair projects stand out from the rest of the competition.

Magnetic Levitation Train

Now this is one science fair project that is absolutely possible! You will, of course, need to do your research about the principle behind the magnetic levitation train, purchase the necessary materials like ceramic magnets for the lifter-rails, wood for the guide rails and model cars, and then execute your drawings and plans. You can then perform experiments with the completed Maglev train set such as using gravity to push the car forward and using the car itself to move something along its path. You can be very creative, maybe even perform quantitative and qualitative analysis of your experiments.

Resurrecting the Dead


Fishes, that is. You are basically recreating the technology of cryonics where dead fishes are placed in a state of suspended animation, which is used in Japan to preserve the freshness of the day’s catch. As part of your middle school science fair projects, you can follow the example of two brothers who supposedly resurrected a dead goldfish by using Mountain Dew, water and a 9-volt battery. Of course, you have to do it on a trial and error basis but that’s where the fun of discovery lies. However, conduct your research before you go about killing all the goldfishes in your home’s aquarium.

With these ideas for middle school science fair projects, you will definitely get the attention of the judges and do yourself, your parents and your teachers proud.

For more middle school science fair projects and step-by-step instructions, visit Be sure to check out the site for tons of simple science projects elementary science experiments, middle school, and high school science.
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The Origins On The Process of Metallurgy

What can we all be familiar with metallurgy? Metallurgy is branch involving scientific discipline that educates on the actual methods employed while extracting alloys from their ores, purifying and also alloying these people. This also entails study regarding the processes utilized when generating objects away from precious metals. Yet, every single child understand entirely exactly what metallurgy is dependant on, it could be greater to own a shorter peek of the history of metallurgy.


Among the earliest processes associated with used science is the actual process of metallurgy. The background will give all of us a good view of how the method developed and their organization using mining harvests. The history of metallurgy could be dated back to several, thousand B . c . and that is what you call age photographer. It can be the time scale involving your Stone Get older plus the Bronze Era which could also be regarded as the particular switching place between Gemstone for you to Metal. The initial process had been purely pet when the birdwatcher felt into a hot stay fireplace. Obviously, the particular photographer melted and when it cooled men and women observed the progres of their design. The development of the process had been additionally contributed from the miracle with the fire. Many of us could learn from the history of metallurgy that searchers back many years ago relied within the fire for that procedures particularly with precious metals.

Within the 2800 B . c . occurs the Bronze Grow older which is yet another advancement inside metallurgy. Individuals have grow to be brilliant that they produced the alloy of copper as well as container considering that both has been often found in the same ore. The result of that was bronze. Bronze happens to be an investment applied for that weaponry with the armies as well as employed as funds with regard to deal. Inside 1500 Bc, yet another state-of-the-art ended up being obtained in metallurgy. It really is your breakthrough discovery regarding metal which was regarded as probably the most ample steel inside globe but had been challenging to be able to remove. With that next, within the 1200’s, men and women encouraged his or her luck and also tried in order to warm the iron along with outdoor cooking with charcoal in such a way how the carbon dioxide from the smokey barbecue grilling could be transferred to the actual in terms of iron. With this, the particular steel will be hardened along with age Metallic came. But, iron is becoming the steady difficult task in order to the majority of metallurgists considering that it’s very difficult which could just become hammered yet can not be melted. Within the 513 Bc, China could actually think of the heater powerful sufficient to warm metal.


Metals these days are an investment vehicle. In the properties, the homes, to the smallest equipment we all employ every day; your wonder regarding metals will be engaged. Without having these, anything wouldn’t be so easy. Hiring workers rather than concerning the days of the Jewel Grow older and you couldn’t need to reside our planet.

1 following another, metals allow us and evolved. In the past, folks certainly not stopped incorporating parts to the history of metallurgy creating way for the mining harvests for being clearly beneficial along with just about the most considerations within our everyday lives these days. For additional info about metallurgy, visit

The First Step Toward Off Grid Living

Off grid living is becoming more appealing to many people as the cost of energy continues to increase. Unplugging from the electric grid and producing all of your own power is now very possible. By utilizing wind turbines or solar panels, many homeowners are generating their own power, assuming their system is sized correctly. By producing some of your own electricity, you can take at least a small step towards off grid living.


Let’s start by talking about solar power. Solar panels are a great option for supplying power to many homes and can work in all parts of the world, even in remote areas or places with a harsh environment. The only thing you need is some hardware and lots of sun. If you’d like to build your own solar panel, the best guide I’ve found is  Green DIY Energy Review.   Solar power systems can be big or small and can even be portable to take in your RV. Solar panels can last more than 20 years if properly cared for. They are tough and require very little maintenance.

Some number of solar panels wired together are primary part of any solar power system. In the northern hemisphere, solar panels should be pointed directly south for maximum power output. With older solar panels, it was more important that they point directly at the sun and many solar power systems used motors to rotate the panels so they always pointed directly at the sun, however with more modern panels this is less important.With more modern solar panels, it is less important that they point directly at the sun, but older solar power systems often had motors to rotate the panels as the sun moved across the sky. With more recent solar panels, stationary panels work quite well as long as they are pointed directly south and at the correct vertical angle.  For another good guide to building a your own solar panel visit  Build Solar Panel.

Since solar cells produce Direct Current (DC), the electricity produced by solar cells can be used to power any DC appliance or to charge batteries. Electricity can be provided at night or when the sun isn’t shining by charging batteries during the day.

A power inverter can be used to convert the DC electricity from solar panels into the AC electricity that standard appliances around your house require. A power inverter can be used to do the DC to AC conversion on power coming from either the solar panels or from batteries.


Another way to begin living off grid is with the use of a wind turbine. You can mount a modern wind turbine on a pole or tower, or perhaps even on the roof of your home. These modern wind turbines are fairly small and quite efficient. If you want to generate power at night as well as during the day, wind turbines can do this which is an advantage over solar panels. As long as the wind is blowing, a wind turbine can produce electricity.  To read about how to build your own wind generator take a look at  Earth4Energy Review

Some people use a wind turbine together with solar panels. Both solar panels and wind turbines generate DC electricity so you can use the same batteries and power inverter with both. At night the wind turbine can produce power as long as there is a breeze and on calm, sunny days the solar panels can take over and generate electricity.

IF you want to pull the plug and begin an off grid lifestyle, either of these systems can generate enough power to allow you to do so. They will let you take your first step towards completely pulling the plug.

What is Renewable Energy?

What is Renewable Energy? | By Xzen Dor

Renewable Energy is an energy source that is derived from a self-renewing sources like Solar, Wind, Water and Geothermal. Renewable Energy may also be defined as an environmentally friendly energy source that does not release toxic substances into the natural environment the way Fossil Fuels (Oil, Gas & Coal) and Nuclear Energy do. Renewable Energy Sources also do not effect earths climate as do Fossil Fuels, and as such are increasingly becoming a viable alternative to burning Coal, Oil and Gas as a means for generating electricity as well as heating & cooling our homes and work environments.

Power Plants that burn Coal and Oil are the largest stationary source for the emission of environmentally dangerous gases like sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. These toxic gases are responsible for the smog that hangs over our cities, the acid rain that poisons our lakes and rivers and for the death of millions of trees in mountainous regions. Cars and Trucks (that have gasoline & diesel burning engines) are the next largest source of these toxic gases since there are tens of millions of vehicles on the road worldwide.

Another alarming concern is the dangerous increase of Carbon Dioxide and Methane gases in the atmosphere, as these two gases are the major contributors responsible for global warming. These gases tend to trap the Suns energy in the earths atmosphere, and as a result have slowly over the past century and much faster over the last 30 years increased the overall global temperature.


This temperature increase is believed by a majority of scientist to be responsible for the rapid melting of Glacial Ice which helps in regulating Global Temperature and in keeping Sea Levels low. As more Glacial Ice melts and is not replenished by yearly snows many regions of the planet that depend on the seasonal melting of Glacial Ice for water are getting less water yearly. As the temperature continues to rise more and more Glacial Ice melts releasing massive amounts of fresh water into the oceans, which affects marine life and threatens the coastal regions around the world as sea levels rise.

In an effort to combat these dangerous trends concerned scientist, citizens and corporations are looking at Renewable Energy Sources to supplant the Fossil Fuels we have been using in earnest since the industrial revolution began more than hundred years ago.

Renewable Energy Sources (Water, Wind, Solar)

Water Power is the first Renewable Energy source that has been used by man dating back several centuries to ancient times. In our modern age Water Power is used to generate huge amounts of electricity through the engineering marvel known as Hydroelectric Power Generation. This system in it’s most basic form uses water to rotate a wheel that is attached to a turbine which in turn generates electricity.

Wind Power another common Renewable Energy Source like Water Power has been harnessed by man for several hundred years. It has been used to provide the energy needed to irrigate fields, grind grains… Wind Power in our modern age is used to generate electricity through the use of Wind Turbines in much the same way as is done in Hydroelectric Power Generation (The difference being that Air is the working fluid not Water).


The last Renewable Energy Source of important consideration is Solar Energy (there is also Geothermal Energy, Ocean Wave etc…). Solar Energy or the Energy that comes from the Sun as heat and light can be used to heat and cool our indoor environments as well as produce electricity. With a device known as a Solar Cell, Sunlight (or any light source) can generate electricity directly without mechanical means. A Solar Cell is able to do this because it takes advantage of the particle nature of Sunlight (The Photon). Solar Energy can also be used to Super Heat a liquid (such as water) producing Super Heated Steam which drives a turbine to produce electricity.

With todays technological advancements Wind and Solar Power are benefits home owners can take advantage of, as these two Renewable Energy Sources are fairly easy to implement in any home. The application of these technological advancements reduce your carbon footprint as well as your energy bill. Implementing Renewable Energy Technologies in your home increases it’s resale value and allows you take advantage of the many tax breaks offered by federal and local governments for installing Green Energy Technologies in your home.

Some of you may be thinking that installing an array of Solar Panels or a Wind Turbine on your roof or back yard will be expensive and difficult proposition, but with the current state of Renewable Technology this is not the case. For instance you can easily make your own Solar Panels for under two hundred dollars which will save you thousands of dollars over commercially available units!


You can also easily build a Solar Heating Storage Unit to heat your entire home making you much less dependent on heating oil, gas or electricity. It is now possible for home owners to be almost completely free of Fossil Fuels and the technologies that use them for generating power, which long term saves you money and helps restores the earths natural balance by reducing Green House Gases.

In conclusion Renewable Energy is not a short term trend that will disappear over time, but it is and will become an intricate part of how we manage our lives making it a smart and essential solution in counteracting the effects of Global Climate Change that is affecting millions of people across the globe as well as the other creatures that share the planet we live on. Renewable Energy is Safe, Clean and Cost Effective and over time will have Cost Advantages over Fossil Fuels; making Renewable Energy a good deal for your Bottom Line, Community and the Planet.

Learn more on how you can join the Renewable Energy Revolution and become Energy Independent.

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Electrical Power and Energy

Electrical Power and Energy | By Wayne Storr

Power is an electrical quantity that is measured in watts, and is the rate at which energy is either being absorbed or produced by a circuit. We know that light bulbs and heaters absorb energy and that the higher their value in watts the more energy they will consume. Likewise, batteries and generators produce energy and the greater their electrical rating the more power they can deliver to the load. The unit of electrical power is the watt with its symbol being a large letter “P” indicating constant DC power or a small letter “p” indicating a time-varying AC power.


Electrical power is related to energy which is the capacity to do work. It can also be defined as the rate of by which energy is transferred. If one joule of work is either absorbed or delivered at a constant rate of one second, then the corresponding power will be equivalent to one watt so power, P can be defined as 1Joule/sec = 1Watt. Then we can say that one watt is equal to one joule per second and electrical power can be defined as the rate of doing work or the transferring of energy.

Equally we can define energy as being watts per second or joules. So if the power is measured in kilowatts (thousands of watts) and the time is measure in hours, then the unit of electrical energy is the kilowatt-hour, (kWh) and 1 kWh is the amount of electricity used by a device rated at 1000 watts in one hour.

Kilowatt-hours are the standard units of energy used by the electricity meter in our homes to calculate the amount of electrical energy we use and therefore how much we pay. So if you switch on an electric fire with an element rated at 1000 watts and left it on for 1 hour you will have used 1 kWh of electricity. If you switched on two electric fires each with 1000 watt elements for half an hour the total consumption would be exactly the same amount of electricity – 1kWh. So, consuming 1000 watts for one hour uses the same amount of power as 2000 watts (twice as much) for half an hour (half the time). Then for a 100 watt light bulb to use 1 kWh or one unit of electrical power it would need to be switched on for a total of 10 hours (10 x 100 = 1000 = 1kWh).

So we now know that the unit of power is the watt with the power absorbed by an electrical circuit being given as the product of the voltage, V and the current, I which gives:

P (watts) = V (volts) x I (amperes)

Also, by substituting Ohm’s Law into the equation above we can also define a constant DC power as being:

P (watts) = I^2 (amperes squared) x R (resistance)


P (watts) = V^2 (voltage squared) / R (resistance)

Then there are three possible formulas for calculating electrical power in a circuit. If the calculated power is positive, (+P) then the circuit or component absorbs the power. But if the calculated power is negative, (-P) the circuit or component delivers power in other words it is a source of energy.

Power Rating


Electrical components are given a “power rating” in watts that indicates the maximum rate at which the component coverts the electrical energy into another form of energy such as heat, light or motion. For example, a 1/4W resistor, a 100W light bulb etc. So energy is used by electrical devices to convert one form of power to another so for example, an electrical motor will covert electrical energy into a mechanical force.

Electrical motors and other electrical systems have an efficiency rating defined as the ratio of power converted into work to the total power consumed by the device. Efficiency is expressed as a decimal fraction but is generally defined as a percentage value such as 85% efficient. So we can define efficiency as being equal to power output divided by power input x 100%.

The efficiency of an electrical device or motor will always be less than one (100%) due to electrical and mechanical losses. If an electrical device has an efficiency rating of 85% then only 85% of the input power is transformed into mechanical work the other 15% is lost in heat or other losses.

Domestic electrical appliances such as washing machines, driers, fridges and freezers also have energy efficiency ratings that indicate their energy usage and cost. These ratings are given as “A” for efficient and “G” for less efficient.


So remember, the more energy efficient is the device, the less energy it will consume and the more money you will save as well as being helpful to the environment.

Learn more about electrical power and energy and lots of other good basic electronics tutorials at

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Why Do We Say Insects Are Everywhere?

Why Do We Say Insects Are Everywhere? | By Debashishk Sah

Insects live everywhere.

You will find them on the highest mountains, in the deepest caves, on the coldest snow-fields and in the hottest places on earth. Why, there is an insect that lives right at the edge of the roaring, tumbling Niagara Falls! Some insects live in the still waters of ponds, others in the stems of leaves. The only place where you will not find insects is under the ocean.


Insects are uninvited guests in your home too. You will find them under the rugs, in your cupboards, even / in your rice, sometimes! You just can’t escape them! Did you know that scientists who study Insects estimate that the average number of insects for each square mile of land equals the total number of people on the earth.


Why are there no insects in the ocean?

Though insects are found everywhere on land and water, the one place where there are no insects is the ocean. Do you know why? It is because their bodies cannot survive in salt water. Though a few varieties are found near the sea, they stay near the shore, and take care not to go into the water at all.

Why are some insects able to live in the water?

Thousands of insects live beneath the calm still waters of lakes and ponds. Their rough, water-repellent coats trap a thin layer of air on their bodies. These bubbles of air store oxygen for them to breathe. Thanks to those air bubbles, insects can stay below the surface indefinitely, and dive as deep as about thirty meters!


Insects that live under water have adapted themselves to their surroundings. The water boatman uses its hind legs like oars. It swims upside down, and pops up to the surface to breathe. The fringes on the diving its legs help to push it through the water, while the air that it stores under its wings helps it to stay under water.

Mosquitoes lay eggs in water and the tiny worm like larvae move through the water by wriggling. The young ones of the dragonfly will also stay under water, before they are developed enough to live on land. The brown china mark caterpillar builds its home with the leaves of the water lily and after it is fully developed, it will eat its home, for the leaves provide it with food too! Isn’t that clever?
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